Tehran

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The name "Iran", which in Persian means "Land of the Aryans", has been in use natively since the Sassanian era. It came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia. Both "Persia" and "Iran" are used interchangeably in cultural contexts; however, "Iran" is the name used officially in political contexts. The 18th largest country in the world in terms of area at 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), Iran has a population of around 79 million. It is a country of particular geopolitical significance owing to its location in the Middle East and central Eurasia. Iran is bordered on the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. As Iran is a littoral state of the Caspian Sea, which is an inland sea, Kazakhstan and Russia are also Iran's direct neighbors to the north. Iran is bordered on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by Iraq and on the northwest by Turkey. Tehran is the capital, the country's largest city and the political, cultural, commercial and industrial center of the nation. Iran is a regional power, and holds an important position in international energy security and world economy as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas. Iran has the second largest proven natural gas reserves in the world and the fourth largest proven petroleum reserves. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations. The first dynasty in Iran formed during the Elamite kingdom in 2800 BC. The Iranian Medes unified Iran into an empire in 625 BC. They were succeeded by the Iranian Achaemenid Empire, the Hellenic Seleucid Empire and two subsequent Iranian empires, the Parthians and the Sassanids, before the Muslim conquest in 651 AD. Iranian post-Islamic dynasties and empires expanded the Persian language and culture throughout the Iranian plateau. Early Iranian dynasties which re-asserted Iranian independence included the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids and Buyids. The blossoming of Persian literature, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, mathematics and art became major elements of Muslim civilization. Iranian identity continued despite foreign rule in the ensuing centuries and Persian culture was adopted also by the Ghaznavids, Seljuk, Ilkhanid and Timurid rulers. The emergence in 1501 of the Safavid dynasty, which promoted Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion of their empire, marked one of the most important turning points in Iranian and Muslim history. The Persian Constitutional Revolution established the nation's first parliament in 1906, within a constitutional monarchy. In 1953 Iran became an authoritarian regime, following a coup d'état instigated by the UK and US. Growing dissent with foreign influence culminated during the Iranian Revolution which led to establishment of an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979. Iran is a founding member of the UN, NAM, OIC and OPEC. The political system of Iran, based on the 1979 constitution, comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The highest state authority is the Supreme Leader. Shia Islam is the official religion and Persian is the official language.

Capital TEHERAN
Currency Rial
Country code 0098
Spoken languages ​​ Persian
Passport

Passport: needed. To enter the country for reasons of tourism it is necessary to have the passport with validity of at least 6 months remaining at the time of entry into the country.

Health

The doctors ' professional level is good and many of them speak several foreign languages. The Embassy has a list of doctors in Tehran who also speak Italian. It was, however, prepared a Handbook, available at the Italian Consular Chancery, which contains useful information on the subject and which is available on the Embassy's website: www.ambteheran.esteri.it/. Some medicines usually available in Italy are not easy to find. We recommend, therefore, the traveler to carry the medicines may need. Cholera outbreaks occur occasionally in the country, especially in the summertime. You should always adopt while preventive measures on food hygiene. Avian Influenza: the countrymen who wish to travel in Bandar Anzali wetland area (province of Gilan, on the Caspian Sea)-where in the past there has been the suspicion of an outbreak of avian influenza-advised, incidentals, consuming meat and birds ' eggs and poultry only if well cooked and to avoid any form of direct contact with birds and poultry, dead or alive. For further instructions, please see the brochure "avian influenza: risks, preventive measures and information" on the home page of this site. More information can also be found at its ASL or on the website of the Ministry of health http://www.ministerosalute.it or World Health Organization http://www.who.int/csr/don. Warnings We recommend that you take out before undertaking the journey, also providing insurance coverage of medical expenses and repatriation medical air or transfer in any other Country. You should also: -do not consume raw foods; -wash and sanitize fruits and vegetables; -drink bottled mineral water without addition of ice or boil it before drinking. Forms of dysentery can appear sometimes during the acclimatisation period, especially during the summer months. Should be avoided therefore public spaces that do not offer sufficient guarantees of hygiene.

Telephony

Iran is connected to the GSM mobile phone (roaming) with Italian users with contract (for telephone calls and sms) and with prepaid cards (only for sms), but the connection is not guaranteed with regularity. It is recommended that you check with your telephone operator the possibility-Italian and-mode usage of your Italian sim card in Iran. In the main cities of the country is easy to buy cards (simcard) of Iranian mobile phone companies for short periods, of which you should take if you undertake trips within the country, especially in the current situation.

Climate

The seasons are well marked and characterized by a very dry climate. In winter is very hard sometimes accompanied by heavy snowfall, while summers are hot and dry with temperatures exceeding 40 degrees often.

Viability

Licence International (Geneva Convention 1949 model or Vienna 1968). Car insurance The liability insurance is compulsory in Iran. Foreign insurances accepted The green card is issued by insurance companies. It is recommended however to bring visitors, in addition to the Green Paper, supplementary insurance certificate named Diayeh, which provides coverage of 400 million Rials, in case of death caused by the driver in order to guarantee against any claims by the family of the deceased. Motorists coming from Turkey must require it to Bazargan. Vehicles imported temporarily with the Customs document To import temporarily a vehicle is required to have a "carnet customs passage" FIA.More information at the link www.aci.it/index.php?id=2090 Important note: the importer must have resided in the country of issuance of the carnet customs passing for at least 6 consecutive months, otherwise the vehicle will not be allowed in Iran. The motorist who arrives in Iran with the intention to stay up for 10 days or more, must apply for temporary registration plates of the vehicle borders (except for the bike). License plates are issued instead of traffic police near the border, whose formalities take about 1 hour and cost about 250. 000 rial. The motorist can retain the original plates in his vehicle to reaffix exit from the country if this takes place from a different customs. Temporary license plates must be returned to the police station nearest to the exit road. The visitor who temporarily imports a vehicle under cover of the carnet customs passage is usually issued at the frontier, an import permit valid for 3 months. For any extension, you must contact the Customs authorities. Note: due to the large number of stolen vehicles were discovered in Iran, the temporary importation of vehicles coming from the United Arab Emirates will be limited to 1 month, with no possibility of extension. Driving rules Driving on the right and overtake on the left. Delegation to conduct The import of a vehicle belonging to a third party must be in possession of the vehicle registration document and a letter of authorization signed by the owner and certicata by a competent authority. Compulsory equipment Helmets for motorcyclists: protective helmet is compulsory for all two-wheel motor vehicles. Safety belts, child seat: it is compulsory to wear a seat belt for the driver and front seat passenger. It is forbidden to transport children in the front seat of the vehicle until they have reached high enough to wear a safety belt. Triangle: red triangles signaling danger are mandatory for commercial vehicles and vehicles exceeding 3,500 kg. However, we recommend that you to the drivers of private vehicles have the triangle aboard. Lights: Any two-wheel motor vehicle (motorcycle and moped) must be equipped with at least one white front light and a red rear light. Any motor vehicle with more than two wheels shall be equipped with at least two front lights visible from a distance of at least 35 metres and, later, two red lights and two brake lights. The rear registration plate of any motor vehicle must be lit to be visible from a distance of at least 25 m. Fire extinguisher: recommended. First-aid box: recommended. Spiked tires for snow chains The studded tires and chains can be used only on roads covered with snow or ice. Their use is not regulated by particular requirements nor is subject to particular speed limits. BAC Limit allowed: the consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited. Tracking tests: the police has the right to call anyone a vehicle to undergo the test alcolimetrico. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is considered an offence in Iran. Any driver whose blood tests have detected traces of alcohol, we will withdraw the licence and will be imposed is a strong fine and a prison sentence. Transport Internal transport are faster planes. The main cities of Iran are all connected with frequent flights to the capital. Are very popular even buses. More poor capillarity. For navigation, taking into account the rates quite easy, you can take advantage of car rental with driver. Air link-level at international level, in addition to national airline Iran Air, Alitalia operates four weekly flights to and from Rome Fiumicino.

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