Ethiopia

       
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Ethiopia is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2. Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With its capital at Addis Ababa, it is also the most populous landlocked nation in the world. Ethiopia was a monarchy for most of its history, and the Ethiopian dynasty traces its roots to the 2nd century BC. Ethiopia is also one of the oldest sites of human existence known to scientists today, having yielded some of humanity's oldest traces. It may be the region from which Homo sapiens first set out for the Middle East and points beyond. Alongside Rome, China and Persia, the Ethiopian Aksum Empire was considered one of the four great world powers of the 3rd century. During the Scramble for Africa, Ethiopia was the only African country beside Liberia that retained its sovereignty as a recognized independent country, and was one of only four African members of the League of Nations. After a brief period of Italian occupation, Ethiopia became a charter member of the United Nations. When other African nations received their independence following World War II, many of them adopted the colors of Ethiopia's flag, and Addis Ababa became the location of several international organizations focused on Africa. Modern Ethiopia and its current borders are a result of significant territorial reduction in the north and expansion in the south toward its present borders, owing to several migrations and commercial integration as well as conquests, particularly by Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena. In 1974, the dynasty led by Haile Selassie was overthrown as civil wars intensified. Since then, Ethiopia has seen a variety of governmental systems. Ethiopia is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), G-77 and the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). Today, Addis Ababa is still the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce (PACCI) and UNECA. The country has one of the most powerful militaries in Africa and Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the continental African Standby Force (ASF). Ethiopia is the only African country where an indigenous alphabet is still widely used. Ethiopia also has its own time system and unique calendar, seven to eight years behind the Gregorian calendar. It has the largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. The country is a land of natural contrasts, with waterfalls and volcanic hot springs. Ethiopia has some of Africa's highest mountains as well as some of the world's lowest points below sea level. The largest cave in Africa is located in Ethiopia at Sof Omar. Ethiopia has one of the largest number of rivers in the world while the country's northernmost area at Dallol, Afar is the hottest place year-round anywhere on Earth. Ethiopia is a multilingual, multicultural and multiethnic society of around 80 groups, with the two largest being the Oromo and the Amhara, both of which speak Afro-Asiatic languages. The country is also famous for its Olympic gold medallists in running, rock-hewn churches in Lalibela, and as the place where the coffee bean originated. Currently, Ethiopia is the top coffee and honey-producing country in Africa, and home to the largest livestock population in Africa. The Ethiopian Aksum region was the first major empire in the world to convert to Christianity and it was one of the first countries to officially adopt Christianity as a state religion in the 4th century. Ethiopia has a Christian majority and a third of the population is Muslim. Ethiopia is the site of the first Hijra in Islamic history and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. Until the 1980s, a substantial population of Ethiopian Jews resided in Ethiopia. The country is also the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari religious movement. Ethiopia, which has Africa's second biggest hydropower potential, is the source of over 85% of the total Nile water flow and contains rich soils, but it nevertheless underwent a series of famines in the 1980s, exacerbated by adverse geopolitics and civil wars, resulting in the death of hundreds of thousands. Slowly, however, the country has begun to recover, and today Ethiopia has the biggest economy by GDP in East Africa and Central Africa. as the Ethiopian economy is also one of the fastest growing in the world. It is a regional powerhouse in the Horn and east Africa. Recently, human rights abuses have been reported in Ethiopia under Premier Meles Zenawi despite the country becoming a leading economic, diplomatic and political force in Africa.
Capital ADDIS ABEBA
Currency Birr (ETB)
Country code 00251
Spoken languages ​​ Amharic, oromo, Tigrinya
Passport

Passport: needed. For the residual demand of passport validity required to enter Ethiopia you should inquire in advance at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent.

Health

Healthcare at home is very lacking. In Addis Ababa and in some places there are public and private structures equipped with modern equipment, but not always fully operational. Hygienic conditions are not always satisfactory and medical and paramedical personnel is often unprepared to deal with emergencies. We recommend that you take out before embarking on the trip, an insurance policy that includes, in addition to the coverage of medical expenses, even the possible emergency repatriation or transfer in any other country. You still need to keep in mind that, in the case of visits to remote areas of the Country, from which the main urban centers are difficult to reach, any medical emergency can have extreme consequences, in view of the lack of facilities for such eventualities and fix the links. The most prevalent are diseases: parasitic diseases such as salmonella, Amoeba, giardiasis, etc.; infectious diseases such as cholera, hepatitis A, typhoid, meningitis, TB; AIDS. Malaria, which is not found in the higher regions of the plateau, is endemic in the rest of the country. Is obligatory an anti-malarial should you visit in areas outside the capital and below 2400 metres. Is compulsory vaccination against yellow fever for travelers in transit from African countries We recommend, after consulting a doctor, vaccinations against: typhoid, hepatitis A and B, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, meningitis and rabies. It should be noted that, in the course of 2010, the local authorities reported that in Addis Ababa and in other areas of the country it is registered the presence of cases of Acute Watery Diarrhoea "syndrome that corresponds to the diagnosis of cholera.

Telephony

The cellular network that covers the capital and adjacent areas (on an area of 50 km) as well as major urban centres is undergoing expansion.

Climate

Ethiopia is a country whose tropical climate varies especially according to the altitude. The Danakil depression (Danakil) in the North-East of the country, dotted with salt lakes and the Somali Region in the Southeast are semi-desert regions and hot; the Abyssinian Highlands, occupying the central part of the country, have a more temperate climate. Rainfall is concentrated in one or two periods of the year, depending on the region. The season of the great rains, in Addis Ababa, coincides with the summer.

Viability

Licence: Italian. The licence is exchanged against an Ethiopian and surrender at the start. Transportation: the ordinary road network covers about 40,000 miles and many of the links are made up of dirt tracks; some locations are accessible only with off road. The traffic is all messy and the rate of traffic accidents, even fatal, is high. We recommend extreme caution in driving on country roads, continually crossed by people and animals and often the scene of serious accidents. In view of the recent tightening in Ethiopian legislation relating to cases of traffic accident (and severe prison sentences that it entails), as well as of the extensive powers of arrest only on suspicion of guilt that they use these police authorities, they advise against absolutely visitors (as well as compatriots in any way here residents) to be driving vehicles Ethiopiain all circumstances, entrusting the means to a local driver. Rail: there is only one railway line linking Addis Ababa to Djibouti, with frequent delays and poor reliability. We recommend that you don't use for the above railway line, as it is often subject to bomb attacks by terrorist groups. Links with Europe: there is a good network of domestic air routes between the major urban centers. Addis Ababa is a modern international airport. Ethiopian Airlines ensures a direct flight Addis Ababa-Rome. Links with Europe are secured by Lufthansa, BMI British Midlands Airlines, Yemenia, Turkish Airlines and EgyptAir.

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