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The walnut Juglans regia is native to a wide region in Central Asia. By the time of Alexander the Great, the walnut forest was locally known for hunting. He took the walnuts from Sogdiana, and these formed the European plantations. It is also said that he exported the walnut plants to Greece during his campaigns in Central Asia. This is inferred from the usage of the word "Gretski", meaning "Greek" nuts for walnuts in Russian. Hence, it is nicknamed as the Greek nut.

Arslanbob's grove produces 1500 tonnes of walnuts per year and is the largest single natural source of walnuts on Earth. It is considered a treasure of the southern forests of Kirghizia as the trees have a life span of about 1000 years and yield large amount of fruits known for its medicinal qualities as it contains "vitamins, microelements and other nutrients". It is a popular wood for making furniture and other crafts.
World Conservation Union (IUCN) held a workshop in September 1995 at Arslanbob to specifically discuss "an exceptional botanical garden" of walnut fruit trees found in Kirghizia distributed over the two large forest ranges of Arslanbob Kugart and Khoja Ata running east west, which in the past covered an area of 630,900 hectares (1,559,000 acres). However, over the decades of exploitation, the area under walnut trees was reduced. These forests are dense and large with particular species composition that have high economic value. Subsequent to World War II, in 1945, an experimental forest research station was reorganized at Arslanbob under the jurisdiction of the Forest Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the then USSR. The research was aimed at the establishment of commercial walnut plantations and maximizing production of fruit, valuable timber and other forest plantations. Reports indicated good results of walnut-fruit cultivation as a result of the joint research efforts.
Various wild forms of other fruit-bearing species including apple (Malus siversiana), pear (Pyrus korshinsky), and plum (Prunus sogdiana).
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