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is the world's most-populous country with a population of over 1.3 billion. The East Asian state covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles) in total area and is the world's second-largest country by land area, and the third- or fourth-largest in total area, depending on the definition of total area. The People's Republic of China is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directly controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (SARs), Hong Kong and Macau. Its capital city is Beijing. The PRC also claims the island of Taiwan, which is controlled by the government of the Republic of China, as its 23rd province, a claim controversial due to the complex political status of Taiwan and the unresolved Chinese Civil War. China’s landscape is vast and diverse, with forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts occupying the arid north and northwest near Mongolia and Central Asia, and subtropical forests being prevalent in the wetter south near Southeast Asia. The terrain of western China is rugged and elevated, with the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separating China from South and Central Asia. The world’s apex, Mt. Everest (8,848 m), lies on the China–Nepal border, while the world's second-highest point, K2 (8,611 m), is situated on China's border with Pakistan. The country’s lowest and the world’s third-lowest point, Lake Ayding (-154 m), is located in the Turpan Depression. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, have their sources in the Tibetan Plateau and continue to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China’s coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometres (9,000 mi) long (the 11th-longest in the world), and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East and South China Seas. The ancient Chinese civilization—one of the world's earliest—flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Xia of the Yellow River basin (approx. 2000 BC) and ending with the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the country has fractured and been reformed numerous times. The Republic of China (ROC), founded in 1912 after the overthrow of the Qing dynasty, ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949. In the 1946–1949 phase of the Chinese Civil War, the Chinese Communists defeated the Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang) on the mainland and established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949. The Kuomintang relocated the ROC government to Taiwan, establishing its capital in Taipei. The ROC's jurisdiction is now limited to Taiwan and several outlying islands, including Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu. Since 1949, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (now widely known as "Taiwan") have remained in dispute over the sovereignty of China and the political status of Taiwan, mutually claiming each other's territory and competing for international diplomatic recognition. In 1971, the PRC gained admission to United Nations and took the Chinese seat as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and the G-20. As of September 2011, all but 23 countries have recognized the PRC as the sole legitimate government of China. Since the introduction of market-based economic reforms in 1978, China has become the world's fastest-growing major economy. As of 2012, it is the world's second-largest economy, after the United States, by both nominal GDP and purchasing power parity (PPP), and is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. On per capita terms, China ranked 90th by nominal GDP and 91st by GDP (PPP) in 2011, according to the IMF. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army, with the second-largest defense budget. In 2003, China became the third nation in the world, after the former Soviet Union and the United States, to independently launch a successful manned space mission. China has been characterized as a potential superpower by a number of academics, military analysts, and public policy and economics analysts.

Capital Beijing
Currency Yuan/RMB
Country code 0086
Spoken languages ​​ Mandarin, cantonese
Passport

Passport: needed and with residual validity of at least six months. For any changes related to the survival of the Passport you should request to be informed beforehand at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent.

Health

The quality of medical service in China is not high. Only in the cities you can find competent health and medical personnel, but with limited knowledge of English or other languages vehicle. Hospitalization costs for foreign citizens are high (up to 500.00 euro per day in the capital); they are also very expensive services provided by some clinics operated by foreign associations, present only in the large cities. In view of the high cost of hospital services at private facilities which usually cater to foreigners, underlines the importance of control of health insurance with adequate ceiling (the "standard" cover sometimes offered by travel agencies may prove insufficient) that also includes the eventual repatriation of the aircraft. In this respect it should be noted that the Italian Embassy cannot sustain or ensure private payments. In rural areas, can be heavy, inadequate health facilities deficiencies and medical staff are not sufficiently specialized. In the Chinese territory are large international companies such as SOS International and Global Doctor providing (at high prices), a transfer service health patients outside China. There are no endemic diseases, however, tuberculosis and hepatitis A and B are widespread. Japanese encephalitis has recorded in 2006 a limited number of victims during the summer season in rural areas and humid (Henan, Shanxi): we recommend that you consult with your doctor to consider depending on your travel program, the opportunity to vaccinate (vaccine, thinly spread in Italy, is available in major Chinese cities). If you travel to Yunnan and Hainan Island, it is good to protect themselves from mosquito bites to avoid even minimal risk of contracting malaria. Yunnan, Guangdong, Henan and other provinces in Central and southern seem more interested in the spread of the disease. Occur each year an average of 1000 cases of rabies in humans. In 2006 the major outbreaks have been in Shandong and Yunnan. It is good therefore avoid contact with stray animals. Sporadic are the cases of dengue fever, in the South of the country (Guangdong). Growing diffusion of sexual diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, for which it is recommended that you take every appropriate precaution (in sexual intercourse, medical treatment involving the use of needles, etc). Chinese health authorities have reported that since the beginning of 2009 at the end of March were recorded, on Chinese territory (excluding Tibet), besides 41,840 cases (94% of the children under 5 years) and some deaths affected by the syndrome HFMD "Hand-foot-mouth-disease". In the case of a viral infection (Coxackievirus 16 and Eterovirus 71-EV71) infection transmitted by interpersonal (saliva, etc.). In addition to the utmost hygiene, you should consult your doctor for sanitation measures to be taken during the stay in the country. China was hit by a severe epidemic of SARS in 2003 which ended, according to the who, at the end of July 2003; in April 2004, some cases had reappeared in Beijing and Anhui. Who does not believe SARS at present a threat to public health. Local health authorities continue to take preventive measures and controls against the spread of Avian Influenza (H5N1) even with the slaughter of thousands of infected birds (see Special Notices on this site). The countrymen who wish to travel in the country we recommend incidentals to consume meat and birds ' eggs only if well cooked and to avoid any form of direct contact with birds and poultry. For further instructions please see the brochure "avian influenza: risks, preventive measures and information" on the home page of this site. More information can also be found at its ASL or on the website of the Ministry of health: www.ministerosalute.it/or the who (World Health Organization): www.who.int/csr/don

Telephony

The GSM 900 and 1800 cover Beijing (Beijing), Guangzhou (Canton) and Shanghai. The GSM 900 network is also active in most urban centres in the East and Southeast, including Chengdu and Chongqing. You can reach Italy by composing a number, that you should ask your provider before departure. Upon arrival in the Chinese and international airports ' can purchase a rechargeable SIM card, which allows calls to and from Italy. Post offices and the headquarters of the CNC (national telephone company) and you can subscribe to subscriptions directories that allow activation services SMS, MMS and e-mail to and from Italy, upon payment of a deposit and the presentation of a sponsor. Internal call costs are also borne by the recipient. Internet: the luxury hotel in major cities provide internet access in room. In general the hotel to four or five stars in big cities have a business center with internet connections. Always in the main cities there are internet cafes that offer affordable access. The purchase of a SIM card with CNC subscription also allows access to the internet, upon payment of an additional fee.

Information

Automobile Club China Automobile Association (CAA) No. 418, 4th floor, Hidong Building Jia 11 Dongfang East Road, Dongsanhuan Rd. Chaoyang District Beijing 100016 Tel.: (+86)-10-84552020; fax: 64615602 e-mail: johngao@aachina.net

Climate

The vastness of the country has different climatic zones: -North China to continental climate, warm summer wet, dry, cold winters and short intermediate seasons; -Central China sub-tropical climate with very mild winters, summers very rainy; -South China tropical monsoon climate, cold winds in winter, autumn-warm winds in spring-summer.

Viability

Licence Are not recognized nor the foreign national licences except those issued in Hong Kong and Macao, or international calls. You can however get a temporary licence with the following procedure. The question of temporary licence valid 3 months, must be filed at the local police office with the following documentation: -national or international driving licence; -invitation letter; -2 passport-size photos; -form duly completed (in Chinese language). The candidate of the temporary license will be imparted a lesson in 2 hours driving. Car insurance Liability insurance is mandatory. It is highly recommended to bring a bill "helmet" with a special extension covering the "economic loss of the opposing party." Note: If an accident occurs between a motor vehicle and a pawn, a Horseman or a non-motorized vehicle, and causes the death or serious injury to non-motorized, the driver of the motor vehicle must meet the 10% of the economic loss of the other party, even if the driver of the motor vehicle has no responsibility in the accident. Any imported vehicle in China must be covered by insurance taken out with a company in China. RCA insurance short term has a minimum of 1 month. Temporary importation of vehicles A vehicle may be temporarily imported in China, for a maximum period of 3 months, but the importer shall be provided with an invitation letter and should get plaques and the temporary registration certificate at the Regional Office (at the point of entry into China) of vehicle safety (Security Vehicle Management Office). Rental vehicles and vehicles driven by persons other than the owner: for rental vehicles: the following documents is required: a valid registration certificate, letter of authorization of the hirer, rental agreement, certificate of insurance. In addition, the vehicle must be in good working condition, must be equipped with anti-theft system and shall comply with anti-pollution norms in force in the country. A vehicle is conducted by a person other than the owner, the driver must be provided with a letter of approval of the owner. Caravan, motorhome, luggage trailers. These vehicles may be temporarily imported under the conditions of a private car (see above). Driving rules Limitations on movement In some large cities movement may be restricted in certain hours; prescribed limitations are indicated by special panels. Compulsory equipment Seat belt and child seat: it is compulsory to wear seatbelts in the front seats of cars in circulation on motorways. There is no retention device for children. Helmets for motorcyclists: required. The helmet is not required for the passenger in the "sidecar". Lights: you must keep the headlamps at night and, in the case of reduced visibility, even during the day. Triangle: If you can not move a vehicle breakdown that hinders the movement, a danger signal Panel should be placed on the back of that same night and must be kept on the flashing lights. Fire extinguisher: is recommended on board a private vehicle but is not mandatory. N.B.: it is difficult to find precise roadmaps as it may be harmful to the country's security. The use of GPS devices is formally prohibited. BAC It is forbidden to driving under the influence of alcohol. A driver with a BAC of 0.02% is considered to be in a State of drunkenness. Police officers are authorized to require a driver (sample tests taken at random) to submit to the breathalyser tests even if they did not commit any offence. The infractions are punished with fines of from 1000 to 2000 CNY and suspension of driving licence for a period of 6 months. It is expected the withdrawal of the licence and a period of 5 years before you can request a new one. Confiscation of the vehicle can be arranged in many cases similar to those in Italy. Points: there is a system of penalty points in the following cities: Beijing, Guangdong, Guangxi, Chongxing, Hangzhou, Nanchang, Nanjing, Shanghai, Tianjin. The Chinese licence worth 12 points. Points are deducted from this assignment according to the gravity of the infringement. Links with Europe The major European airlines have daily connections with major cities in China. The Chinese company has frequent connections to Airchina numerous European destinations (Italy).

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