Chad

       
N'Djamena

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officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Due to its distance from the sea and its largely desert climate, the country is sometimes referred to as the "Dead Heart of Africa". Chad is divided into multiple regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second largest in Africa. Chad's highest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara, and N'Djamena, (formerly Fort-Lamy), the capital, is the largest city. Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. Arabic and French are the official languages. Islam and Christianity are the most widely practised religions. Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium BC, a series of states and empires rose and fell in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1979, the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Recently[when?], the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad. While many political parties are active, power lies firmly in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued by political violence and recurrent attempted coups d'état (see Battle of N'Djamena (2006) and Battle of N'Djamena (2008)). Chad is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world; most inhabitants live in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers. Since 2003, crude oil has become the country's primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry. Chad is considered a failed state by the Fund for Peace.

Capital N'DJAMENA
Currency Franco CFA
Country code 00235
Spoken languages ​​ Arabic, French and Sudanese dialects
Passport

Passport: needed. For any changes to this rule, we recommend that you inquire beforehand at the Embassy of Chad in Paris or the Consulate of Chad in Brussels or at your travel agent.

Health

The country has inadequate health structures in relation to European standards; We do not, therefore, to undergo surgery on the spot. The availability of medicines is poor. We recommend that you carry a stock of medicines for emergencies and for specific pathologies which are both suffering. In case of emergency, you can contact the Hospital "The good Samaritan" N'Djamena, run by Italian clerics, to the French Embassy Medical Center and the medical service of the French military base in N'Djamena. We recommend that you take out before embarking on the trip, an adequate health insurance to include, in addition to the coverage of medical costs, including any return air health or transfer in any other country. The country is classified as zone 2, medium risk malaric. You should, after consulting a doctor, an anti-malarial. HIV seropositivity rate of 14% is officially in high-risk environments. In 2010 there were several cases of cholera infection with a hundred deaths. Local health authorities have carried out a broad prevention campaign among the populace by adopting several measures, including the prohibition of sale of water in bags or in bulk, the intensification of disinfection in homes and workplaces suspected of contamination. That should go to compatriots in the country, you should consult a doctor or advance your ASL, keeping while staying at home to animal-health measures and hygiene/food suggested. Recommended immunizations: we recommend that you consult your own physician ASL or the confidence to get updated data. Warnings We recommend extreme caution to avoid feeding raw food, unwashed vegetables, urban network, water ice in drinks.

Climate

Mostly warm with variations depending on the latitude in which lie the regions. To the North there is the desert area of the arid Tibesti Mountains, while to the South, in the area of savannas, are an equally warm but humid climate with a rainy season.

Viability

Licence International (Geneva Convention 1949 model or Vienna 1968). Car insurance The third party insurance is mandatory and it is hugely in the nearest big city, not in the border. Documents for vehicles imported temporarily Is required the "carnet customs passage for vehicles imported temporarily. Transportation: the routes are difficult throughout the country. The paved roads are few and tracks become impassable in the rainy season (March – April to October-November), mainly in the South. In the North of the country, the streets are still insecure due to the presence of mines. There are collective transport (minibuses, taxis of forest) linking the various locations of the country, but we must ensure that these vehicles satisfy the basic safety standards. The fuel is not always available in major cities and it is difficult to find outside of built-up areas. You may want to stock up on fuel and to travel in convoys within the country. International airports: from N'djamena secured connections with Europe. The new national company "Toumai Air Chad" ensures several weekly connections with Bangui, Cotonou and Douala. Domestic flights are covered by small private companies. We recommend extreme caution in making flights with small private air taxi companies, generally lacking in maintenance and not always equipped for night flights.

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