Bulgaria

       
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 is a parliamentary republic in Southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south and the Black Sea to the east. Bulgaria is a very mountainous country due to its location in the Balkan peninsula. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria ranks as Europe's 14th-largest country. Prehistoric cultures began developing on Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period. Its ancient history was marked by the presence of the Thracians, and later by the Greeks and Romans. The emergence of a unified Bulgarian ethnicity and state dates back to the 7th century and the First Bulgarian Empire, which functioned as a cultural hub for Slavic peoples and spread over most of the Balkans during the Middle Ages. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for nearly five hundred years. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 resulted in the Third Bulgarian State, recognised in 1908. Shortly afterward, Bulgaria engaged in major conflicts with its neighbours and allied with Germany in both World Wars. In 1946 it became a communist republic and was a satellite member of the Warsaw Pact until 1989, when the Communist Party allowed multi-party elections. After 1990 Bulgaria transitioned to democracy and switched to a market-based economy. The current political structure dates to the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe, a founding state of the OSCE, and has been a member of the UN Security Council three times. It is a unitary state with a high degree of political, administrative and economic centralisation, and was rated a free country. The population of 7.36 million people is predominantly urban and mainly concentrated in the administrative centres of its 28 provinces. With 1.3 million people, the capital Sofia is the largest city and concentrates most commercial and cultural activities. The strongest sectors of the economy are heavy industry, power engineering and agriculture, all relying on local natural resources. As a historical crossroad for various civilisations, Bulgaria is the home of some of the world's most ancient cultural artifacts.

Capital SOFIA
Currency Lev bulgaro (BGN)
Country code 00359
Spoken languages ​​ Bulgarian; English, French and German
Passport

Passport/valid identity card needed for border crossing: the country is part of the EU from 1 January 2007. It is necessary to travel with one of the two valid documents. The citizens of the Member countries of the European Union, the countries of the European economic area and the Swiss Confederation, and can remain in Bulgaria up to a maximum of 90 days within half a year, with the only valid identity card needed for border crossing (or passport). For any changes related to the survival of the Passport you should request to be informed beforehand at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent. For those who possess a valid identity card needed for border crossing is important that renewed vision on how to take reported under the heading "FOCUS" on the home page of this site. In Bulgaria the template AT (railway), equivalent to the identity card, is not accepted as a valid document for expatriation in contrast to other EU countries.

Health

The health situation is steadily improving. However, the standard of care is, overall, still below the Italian although it registers an adequate professionalism of medical and nursing staff. In major cities and in major tourist centers are found the most common medications. However, for specific diseases and prolonged treatments especially for stays in remote areas of the country, it is recommended, before departure, to adopt an adequate supply of medicines. Italian citizens who travel temporarily (for tourism, business, study or work) in the country (Member State of the European Union) can receive necessary medical care provided by local public health care if they have the European health insurance card (TEAM), or health card. The TEAM replaces the previous models E110, E111, E128 and E119 and is being distributed by the Ministry of economy and finance. Those who had not yet been received to its ASL can contact and ask for the "provisional replacement certificate". We recommend that you take out before embarking on the trip, an adequate health insurance to include, in addition to the coverage of medical costs, including any return air health or transfer in any other country. Warnings and suggestions: It is advisable to adopt, while staying in the country, preventive measures against mosquito bites shown under the heading "FOCUS" on the home page of this site. We recommend that you: • in some areas of the country, drinking mineral water and bottled beverages, without adding ice; • consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables thoroughly washed only once, to obtain information at the Italian health authorities about any recommended vaccinations. They are, in fact, reported cases of hepatitis B, TUBERCULOSIS, listeria and, recently, of meningitis.

Telephony

it activates the GSM cellular network which operates the three major mobile operators Mtel, (which also offers access to the platform GPRS), GloBul and VIVACOM, who is also the company's fixed-line telephony. Under roaming agreements with major Italian handlers, you can use your mobile phone to make calls from Italian/for Bulgaria. The signal is present almost throughout the national territory, except for some areas. You can also buy pre-paid cards: in this case, following the entry into force of a new law from 1 January 2010, it is necessary to register with the operator providing the personal data and showing an identity document.

Climate

The climate is continental, similar to that of Northern Italy. Winters are rigid and the temperature can stay below zero for weeks during the months of December & January with peaks of -10°/ -15° C; Summers are hot and the temperature exceeds 30° C easily. The intermediate seasons are generally very long and rainy. The climate is milder and tempered along the Black Sea coast, in the eastern part of the country.

Viability

Car insurance It is simply the Italian insurance Delegation to conduct: Remember those driving abroad, a car that is not advisable to have a delegation to conduct of the owner with a notary certified signature at Driving rules Mandatory equipment: Helmets for motorcyclists Seat belts compulsory for front and rear seats. Children should be seated on restraint systems according to EU regulations. Triangle: Any truck breakdowns and who is still on the public road (except a moped or a motorcycle) must be marked with a triangle of emergency or another accessory with light, located directly beside or on the vehicle. Fire extinguisher and first aid: scholarship are required on all vehicles. Lights: strongly recommended but not required to keep the lights on day and night Reflective vest on motorways required day and night for motorcyclists. Winter equipment From November to March is allowed the use of snow chains (vel max 50 km/h) or required the use of snow tires on all wheels. Studded tires prohibited. BAC The alcohol content of 0.05% is permitted. Tracking: Any Test driver, resident or visitor, who is suspected of being intoxicated may be obliged to undergo a breath test. If the test is positive, it must undergo a blood test. Vignette Upon arrival in Bulgaria drivers of motor vehicles must purchase a "vignette" to drive on the roads in Bulgaria. This "vignette" is available at borders, offices UAB, service stations on the highways, in big cities and in the warehouses of food chain Piccadilly. The stickers are affixed on front windshield of the vehicle only if you plan to move out of the city. Rates in euros for cars: 1 week: euro 5 1 month: 13 euro 1 year: € 34 The vignettes can also be purchased online at www.vinetka.com (available in Bulgarian and English). Transport in General: Urban transport. Urban transport are often overcrowded, not very efficient and maintained with obsolete equipment and sometimes unsafe. Very popular radio-taxis, taxis and taxis very cheap prices. From 2009 in Sofia also works underground in enlargement. Suburban transport. In extracity operate private coach companies covering almost the entire national territory, with obsolete and inconvenient means sometimes. Tickets are available at the agencies of companies themselves, usually located near the main train stations. We advise caution though were not reported particular problems of security. Railroads. The local rail network (6,490 km, of which 2,710 km electrified and 969 km double track) is managed by the State and is currently suboptimal conditions. Rail Park maintenance remains inadequate and connections are quite slow (e.g. trafficking Sofia-Varna, nearly 500 miles, in 8:0). However, ongoing improvement projects and modernization of the network. Internal air routes: are among the main Bulgarian cities at prices quite content from a local company, which offers also some foreign destinations. Traffic report: road signs are written in Cyrillic; only on motorways and major national roads and only for the main towns there are reports written in Latin characters. The State of the road network is in the process of improvement, despite a poor maintenance – especially on minor roads that are very rough-and with dangerous holes in the road surface. It is also worth noting the high increase of circulating vehicles in recent years that made it more difficult and chaotic traffic in large urban centers and the intense traffic on major suburban thoroughfares. It is increasing the frequency of accidents. Both the diesel and unleaded is available almost everywhere in prices slightly lower than the Italians. Links with Europe The aircraft remains the preferred way to travel to Bulgaria. Several European airlines (Air France, Austrian Airlines, Czech Airlines, Malev, Olympic Airways, Lufthansa, British Airways, Swiss) ensure the link between the Bulgaria and the main European airports. The Alitalia flights Rome Fiumicino and Milan Malpensa airport-Sofia-Sofia. The local flag carrier Bulgaria Air operates domestic and international flights, including Sofia-Rome Fiumicino. The Bulgaria Air and Alitalia signed a commercial agreement, including code-sharing, in force since 1 November 2003, thanks to which it is possible with a single

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