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is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south. Its northern coastline of roughly 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi) includes numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea, and in the north east borders the northern Atlantic Ocean. Caribbean islands such as Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, Curaçao, Bonaire, Aruba and the Leeward Antilles lie near the Venezuelan coast. Venezuela's territory covers around 916,445 square kilometres (353,841 sq mi) with an estimated population of 29,105,632. Venezuela is considered a state with extremely high biodiversity, with habitats ranging from the Andes mountains in the west to the Amazon Basin rainforest in the south, via extensive llanos plains and Caribbean coast in the center and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522, overcoming resistance from indigenous peoples. It became the first Spanish American colony to declare independence (in 1811), but did not securely establish independence until 1821 (initially as a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, gaining full independence in 1830). During the 19th century Venezuela suffered political turmoil and dictatorship, and it was dominated by regional caudillos (military strongmen) into the 20th century. It first saw democratic rule from 1945 to 1948, and after a period of dictatorship has remained democratic since 1958, during which time most countries of Latin America suffered one or more military dictatorships. Economic crisis in the 1980s and 1990s led to a political crisis which saw hundreds dead in the Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, and the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of funds in 1993. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former career officer Hugo Chávez, and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution, beginning with a 1999 Constituent Assembly to write a new Constitution of Venezuela. Venezuela is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District (covering Caracas), and Federal Dependencies (covering Venezuela's offshore islands). Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America; the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital, Caracas, which is also the largest city. Venezuela is a founder member of the United Nations (1945), the Organization of American States (1948), the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (1960), the Group of 15 (1989), the World Trade Organization (1995), the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA) (2004) and the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) (2008). Since the discovery of oil in the early 20th century, Venezuela has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil and has the largest oil reserves. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues. The 1980s oil glut led to an external debt crisis and a long-running economic crisis, which saw inflation peak at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rise to 66% in 1995 as (by 1998) per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak. The recovery of oil prices after 2001 boosted the Venezuelan economy and facilitated social spending, although the fallout of the 2008 global financial crisis saw a renewed economic downturn.

Capital CARACAS
Currency Bolivar (VEB)
Country code 0058
Spoken languages ​​ spanish
Passport

necessary, with residual validity of at least six months from the date of arrival in the country. There have been cases of travellers who, despite having a valid document, but the next, have encountered difficulties and were rejected in the border. For any changes related to the survival of the Passport you should request to be informed beforehand at the Embassy or Consulate of Venezuela in Italy or at your travel agent.

Health

The public hospitals do not reflect European standards. The cost of private healthcare facilities are very high. Sometimes there are shortages of drugs and therapeutic supports. In some periods of the year occur cases of ciguatera, food poisoning, found in all of the Caribbean, due to the consumption of fish is usually very large, even if thoroughly cooked, can cause gastrointestinal disorders (diarrhea, vomiting, etc.), neurological (muscle aches, loss of equilibrium, etc.) or heart (tachycardia, arterial hypertension). You have seen outbreaks of Amoeba, viral hepatitis and Chagas ' pain, infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma Cruzi "." Vaccination campaigns were carried out to curb outbreaks of rubella and measles that occurred recently in the country. You record in recent times, particularly in the States of Bolívar, Sucre and Delta Amacuro, a resurgence of malaria cases, transmitted by mosquitoes present in the South and in the country's Amazonian forests. Are increasing cases of AIDS. Dengue fever is present in particular in the Caribbean area and sub-tropical and is also very popular in Venezuela. The dengue is transmitted by the bite of mosquito (Aedes Aegypti) that proliferates in moist areas and stagnant waters can spread swiftly and in particular during the rainy season. The rapid spread is researched in the shortage of drinking water, especially in densely populated areas, forcing people to use reserve tanks, often improvised, which are the ideal habitat for the proliferation of mosquito. There were numerous cases of dengue fever in the metropolitan area of Caracas. Please note that some countries (eg. Brazil, Panama) require up to Venezuela from the certificate of yellow fever vaccination. We recommend that you inquire at Diplomatic/Consular representations of the countries you intend to visit after being in Venezuela. WARNINGS We recommend that you: -conclude, before embarking on your trip, health insurance to include, in addition to the coverage of medical costs, including any return air health or the transfer of sick in another Country; -preventive measures against mosquito bites such as mosquito nets, insect repellent products, clothes that cover the arms and legs, etc. The dengue fever may occur in both the "classic" form the most dangerous dengue hemorrhagic, "". In case of febrile States (especially with very high temperatures) and easily confused with a simple flu or in cases of skin rashes, you should immediately undergo medical examination before taking aspirin or derivatives as contraindicated in cases of dengue fever. You should also consume only bottled mineral water, without adding ice to avoid raw foods (urban areas) and to use appropriate solar protectors suitable for strong irradiation of the tropics.

Climate

tropical climate with two seasons: the rainy season (May-November), with frequent showers often brief, but intense causing flooding along the road network with inevitable consequences on traffic, and the dry season (December-April).

Viability

Driving Licence: The license is not recognised. Is it possible to use the international licence. Customs document: It's called the "carnet customs passage for vehicles imported temporarily. Insurance: Insurance in the border.

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