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is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia (mostly in the Anatolian peninsula) and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea is to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between East Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey is one of the six independent Turkic states. The vast majority of the population are Muslims. The country's official language is Turkish, whereas Kurdish and Zazaki languages are spoken by Kurds and Zazas, who constitute 18% of the population. Oghuz Turks began migrating into the area now called Turkey (derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, i.e. "Land of the Turks") in the 11th century. The process was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert. Several small beyliks and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion. Starting from the 13th century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World War I, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies. A cadre of young military officers, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues, organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would establish the modern Republic of Turkey with Atatürk as its first president. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with an ancient cultural heritage. Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organisations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major economies. Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005, having been an associate member of the European Economic Community since 1963 and having reached a customs union agreement in 1995. Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the Middle East, the Turkic states of Central Asia and the African countries through membership in organisations such as the Turkic Council, Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organisation. Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance. Given its strategic location, large economy and military strength, Turkey is a major regional power.

Capital ANKARA
Currency Lira Turca
Country code 0090
Spoken languages ​​ Turkish

It is allowed the entrance with the only valid identity card needed for border crossing and valid for those who: -enter into Turkey across borders by air and sea; -enter into Turkey from the Greek and Bulgarian border to railway Street and overland (except as indicated in case of travel by own means, for which you need the Passport). It is, however, absolutely necessary passports for those entering the country for overland and railway, from the borders of Southeast and East of Turkey, the border with Georgia, the exclave of Azerbaijan – Nakhicevan, Iran, Iraq and Syria, (the border with Armenia is closed at the moment).


Generally speaking, the health situation in the country can be satisfying, even if there are deficiencies in infrastructure; some public hospitals are not in good condition and are best private clinics. To get health services such as emergency shelters, medical visits or the purchase of medicinal products, Italian citizens are required to pay their fees/costs, which can sometimes reach significant digits. Please note that the Consulate General in Istanbul ended with the Universal Hospital Group a protocol which provides for preferential treatment for all Italian citizens at hospitals that are part of this group; in Istanbul, at the German Hospital in Sira Selviler Caddesi, Taksim area. The agreement provides for the application of the 45% discount on medical expenses, excluding medicines and dental treatment or cosmetics. For more information you can contact no. 2150/0212 293 1577 which provides assistance in English. It should be noted that the Turkish authorities during the 2011 informed to have established an emergency number for tourists with health problems: 112 (in English, Arabic, Russian, German) and a number for complaints: 184 (in the same languages). In addition, Units were created for foreign patients in a series of hospitals in eighteen different provinces (see link http://www.saglik.gov.tr/SaglikTurizmi/belge/1-13511/yurtdisi-hasta-birimi-olan-hastaneler.html) and provincial coordination centres for foreign patients in the cities of Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Antalya, Mugla and Aydin (see link http://www.saglik.gov.tr/SaglikTurizmi/belge/1-13510/yurtdisi-hasta-il-koordinasyon-merkezleri.html) More information in English, including tariffs, can be consulted at: http://www.saglik.gov.tr/SaglikTurizmi/belge/1-13645/mandate-for-health-tourism-and-tourist-health-covers-he-.html. In small towns are still endemic diseases (hepatitis, intestinal infections, Amoeba, etc.). In summer – and particularly in the South-East Anatolian-you must be especially careful when buying drinks (water is not potable) and foods to avoid tifoidee and gastrointestinal disorders which could give rise to more serious infectious diseases. It also draws attention to the risk arising from the presence of coliform "and" in certain products and food packaging. In particular, it is not recommended the purchase of ground meat and a variety of salads and appetizers already packed. We recommend that you take out before undertaking the journey, a health insurance that includes, in addition to the coverage of medical expenses, even the eventual repatriation medical air or transfer in another country. The last cases of bird flu (H5N1) have been reported in Turkey in January 2006 by who (World Health Organization) in the Dogubayazit district (province of Van), near the border with Iran. In all cases the patients lived in close contact with infected birds. There were, during the summer of 2010, some cases of Nile Virus infections in the provinces of Manisa, Izmir (Smyrna), Aydin, Isparta and Sakarya, transmitted by infected mosquitoes. Although, according to local health authorities, in general there are no dangers, however, in the case of people at risk (e.g., people suffering from specific diseases) the virus could lead to death from encephalitis. Some years include, particularly in areas of Central and Eastern Anatolia, several cases of hemorrhagic fever, many of them with lethal outcome, caused by tick bite.


The climate is continental in Ankara. Winter is harsh with snow, ice, and temperatures reaching -10 degrees; summer is hot and dry with temperatures-about 30-40 degrees and strong variations between day and night (the altitude is 900 metres). In Istanbul, summer is hot and humid, winters are humid and rainy; Izmir and Antalya have a Mediterranean climate with mild winters and very hot summers. The geographical characteristics, the very intense car traffic and heating fuel (coal still partly) encourage pollution in some areas of the city of Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir and Antalya (in windless days it can reach very high levels) The climate on the Black Sea coast is always rainy. The temperature in the area of the South-East is particularly high from June until October.


Driving Licence: Italiana Car insurance A vehicle with Italian license plates must have the green card insurance coverage, which must include the whole Turkey, namely the Asian Turkey (Anatolia) and Turkey in Europe. Short-term insurance Who is devoid of foreign insurance valid for the whole of Turkey, shall take out a short-term policy. A visitor can get short-term insurance either at the headquarters of the TTOK (Car Club) in Istanbul, both at the Kapikule border Ipsala and Derekoy, or at the offices of the TTOK to Ankara and Antalya, or in the ports of Izmir, Mersin and Iskenderun. Who wants to hire a car in Turkey must be aware that the local insurance conditions include very low ceilings in case of damage to persons and things. You should require more information regarding Italian consulates. Vehicles imported temporarily without customs documents The visitor may temporarily import without customs document, a vehicle for a maximum period of 6 months. At the end of this period the vehicle must remain abroad for 6 months before they can be admitted back into Turkey. The passport of the importer shows the extremes of imported and this vehicle must be re-exported by the same person. Delegation to conduct: Please remember to drive a car abroad does not own that it is advisable to have a delegation to conduct of the owner with a notary certified signature at. You should also have a translation in Turkish delegation itself. In the case of private vehicles imported by a third party pending the arrival of owner in Turkey, the driver must declare to customs that he leads the vehicle on behalf of the owner, by presenting a letter of permission. A vehicle temporarily imported can be driven solely by the importer and must not be guided by a third party, even if they do not reside in Turkey. Limitations on movement The movement of vehicles weighing more than 7 tons is prohibited in Istanbul during the weekdays from 08.00 to 20.00 hours, with the exception of peripheral roads direct to the Fatih Sultan Mehmet bridge on the Bosphorus. It is forbidden to the transit of heavy goods vehicles on the old Bridge of the Bosphorus. BAC The maximum limit of BAC is 0.05% for drivers of private vehicles without trailers and 0% for drivers of other vehicles. Tracking Test It is forbidden to drive motor vehicles under the influence of alcohol and anyone can be subjected to the periodic table. For blood alcohol content exceeding allowed: fines from 537 to 1078 TL and/or stopping by 3 to 6 months. Compulsory equipment Helmets for motorcyclists: required. You must wear a seat belt on the front seats of cars that are equipped with. A child under the age of 12 years may travel in the front seat of the car. Is required to have on board two red triangles signaling danger for all types of vehicles to be registered in Turkey which registered abroad. In the case of stationary, one of these triangles is to ask in front of the vehicle and the other behind, both in the sense of movement. First aid Kit and fire extinguisher In addition to the normal equipment, all vehicles, except motorcycles, both those registered in Turkey that those registered abroad, must be equipped with a first aid kit and a fire extinguisher. The spiked tyres are prohibited. Motorway network Motorways are subject to charges. Links with Italy For links with Italy there are daily flights Alitalia and Turkish Airlines from Istanbul and Lufthansa flights from Ankara. Internal transport With regard to internal links, it should be noted that the largest passenger transport by coach give adequate assurance service while the railways do not have equally valid. The internal air routes, however, are the most efficient way to travel in Turkey.

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