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 is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent as well as the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[N 4] It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north; the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. For at least 40,000 years before European settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who belonged to one or more of roughly 250 language groups. After discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades; the continent was explored and an additional five self-governing Crown Colonies were established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system which functions as a federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The federation comprises six states and several territories. The population of 22.7 million is heavily concentrated in the Eastern states and is highly urbanised. A highly developed country, Australia is the world's 13th-largest economy and has the world's fifth-highest per capita income. Australia's military expenditure is the world's 13th-largest. With the second-highest human development index globally, Australia ranks highly in many international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, and the protection of civil liberties and political rights. Australia is a member of the G20, OECD, WTO, APEC, UN, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, and the Pacific Islands Forum.

Capital CANBERRA
Currency Dollaro australiano
Country code 0061
Spoken languages ​​

English

Passport

Documentation required for access to the Country Passport: needed, ongoing validity. For any changes related to the survival of the Passport you should request to be informed beforehand at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent.

Health

Health care is excellent in urban areas. In rural areas and in the most remote, instead, there is a shortage of health workers and hospitals are unreliable. Operates between Italy and Australia agreed in healthcare allowing Italian tourists to take advantage of the guaranteed basic health care to Australian citizens by the public system of "Medicare", for a period not exceeding 180 days. There is no special problem of hygienic-sanitary prophylaxis. It is recommended in any case to conclude, before embarking on the journey, providing health insurance coverage as well as specialist medical expenses, even if air emergency medical repatriation or transfer in any other country.

Telephony

The cellular network is excellent in urban centres, rarely used in inland areas (Southeastern regions of New South Wales and Victoria are covered only partly). Operators: Telstra, Optus, Virgin, Vodafone.

Information

Australian Automobile Association (AAA) 103 Northbourne Ave. G.P.O.Box 1555 Canberra ACT 2601 Tel. (+61 2) 62477311 Fax 62575320 e-mail: aaa@aaa.asn.au sito web: www.aaa.asn.au Ufficio ICE di Sydney Italian Trade Commission Level 24, St. Martins Tower 31, Market Street P.O.Box Q183 QVB Post Office Sydney, NSW 1230 Tel. 0061 (02) 92612277 - Fax 0061 (02) 92612479 E-mail: sydney.sydney@ice.it – Sito Internet: www.ice.it Austrade 20, Allara Street – Canberra, A.C.T. Tel. (02) 62137560 – (02) 62137715, fax (02) 62137843 Sito Internet: www.investaustralia.gov.au

Climate

The great extent of country, higher than that of Western Europe, presents a large variety of climates: the center of the country is desert, while the Northern (Queensland and Northern Territory) is subtropical. The temperate zone is that of the southeastern coast. Canberra's climate is temperate, with four distinct seasons; temperatures are relatively high in the summer months (December-February) reaching even the (35 degrees), while in winter (June-September) are on average around (5 degrees). In Sydney, the climate is mild, very hot and humid in summer (26-27° maximum) and cool in winter (8-10 degrees minimum). Adelaide is similar to Sydney (7-8 grades of lowest average) and winter (28-29 degrees Celsius) in summer. Melbourne is relatively cooler with a minimum temperature around (4-5°) in winter and (26-27° c) in summer. To the North of Australia (Brisbane) the climate is subtropical with very high temperatures and high humidity in the summer months and relatively cooler temperatures during the winter months, between (15-26° c). Perth's climate is very hot in summer with temperatures easily exceeding maximum (40 degrees) and mild winters.

Viability

Licence International driving licence (model 1949 Geneva Convention or Vienna 1968). To rent a car you must be at least 21 years old and be in possession of a driving license for at least 12 months. Car insurance Minimum mandatory insurance: a visitor must take out insurance for RC to third parties in the State or in the territory where it landed. Foreign insurances accepted: none. A visitor who imports a vehicle should ask his insurance company to bargain with an insurance company in Australia. If this cannot be done, it is recommended to get from their insurance certificate with details of its Bill, which will facilitate obtaining a policy in Australia. There may be difficulties if the visitor imports a vehicle of unknown brand in Australia. Customs documents It is required the "carnet customs passage for vehicles imported temporarily. Driving rules To observe carefully the rules relating to the conduct of vehicles especially regarding speed limits and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Movement left, overtaking on the right. Compulsory equipment Helmets for motorcyclists: required. Safety belts, child seat: Mandatory to wear seat belts in any place that is provided. The regulation concerning the child varies from region to region, but generally a restraint system adapted to the size of the child is required everywhere. Lights: at night the lights position must always be turned on, unless the vehicle is not visible due to street lighting. BAC Limit allowed: -driver expert, respectively: Beginner New South Wales 0.05%; 0.00% Queensland 0.05%; 0.00% South Australia-0.05%; 0.00% Tasmania 0.05%; 0.00% -Victoria 0.05%; 0.00% Western Australia-0.05%; 0.00% -Australian Capital territory 0.05%; 0.00% Northern Territory-0.05%; 0.00% Tracking Test In all States and territories, a driver may be stopped without any special reasons to be subjected to a breath test. In the event of an accident, a test is almost always carried out. If the limit of 0.05% is exceeded, the driver is accompanied to the nearest police station and the vehicle left parked. Winter equipment: Banned studded tires, chains on mountain roads in the event of snow. Transportation: well developed links both national and international flights from all major airports in the country. Since September 2003 were cancelled direct flights of the national airline of Australia (Qantas) for Italy. Links with Europe are secured by several European and Asian airlines including British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Singapore Airlines, Thai and Japan Airlines. Limited road and rail connections, especially inland. The plane is the most widely used means of transport to move from one side to the other of the country, but the prices are relatively high.

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