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is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory. The internationally recognized Transitional Federal Government controls only a small part of the country. Somalia has been characterized as a failed state and is one of the poorest and most violent states in the world. Somalia lies in the easternmost part of Africa. It is bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden with Yemen to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west. It has the longest coastline on the continent, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Hot conditions prevail year-round, along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. In antiquity, Somalia was an important centre for commerce with the rest of the ancient world, and according to most scholars, it is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt. During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuuraan State, the Sultanate of Adal, the Warsangali Sultanate and the Gobroon Dynasty. In the late nineteenth century, the British and Italians gained control of parts of the coast, and established British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland In the interior, Muhammad Abdullah Hassan's Dervish State successfully repulsed the British Empire four times and forced it to retreat to the coastal region, but the Dervishes were finally defeated in 1920 by British airpower. Italy acquired full control of their parts of the region in 1927. This occupation lasted until 1941, when it was replaced by a British military administration. Northern Somalia would remain a protectorate, while southern Somalia became a trusteeship. In 1960, the two regions were united to form an independent Somali Republic under a civilian government. Mohamed Siad Barre seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic. In 1991, Barre's government collapsed as the Somali Civil War broke out. Since 1991, no central government has controlled the entirety of the country, despite several attempts to establish a unified central government. The northwestern part of the country has been relatively stable under the self-declared, but unrecognized, sovereign state of Somaliland. The self-governing region of Puntland covers the northeast of the country. It declares itself to be autonomous, but not independent from Somalia. The Islamist Al-Shabaab controls a large part of the south of the country. Without a central government, Somalia's inhabitants subsequently reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either civil, Islamic, or customary law. The internationally recognized Transitional Federal Government controls only parts of the capital and some territory in the centre of the nation, but has reestablished national institutions such as the Military of Somalia, and is working towards eventual national elections in 2012, when the interim government's mandate expires. During the two decades of war and lack of government, Somalia has maintained an informal economy, based mainly on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications.

Currency Scellino somalo - SOS
Country code 00252
Spoken languages ​​ Somali, Arabic

necessary, valid. For any changes to this rule, we recommend that you inquire beforehand at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent.


Hygienic-sanitary conditions are very precarious due to a lack of vaccinations against the most common diseases. Many endemic diseases plaguing the country and particularly the risk of contracting malaria is present everywhere. Clorochino strains have been reported-resistant malaria; We recommend, therefore, its prophylaxis. There is a high risk of contracting gastro-intestinal diseases. There have been reported cases of cholera, meningitis, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis and HIV. Warnings: We recommend, after consulting a doctor, vaccinations against: polio, typhoid, hepatitis A and B, tetanus, yellow fever, malaria and diphtheria. Particular attention should be given to water, which should always be boiled and purified. Avoid raw foods, thoroughly wash and disinfect vegetables and fruits, do not add ice in drinks. The emergency sanitary repatriations are carried out exclusively or after specific insurance policy with insurance companies, AMREF Flying Doctors, AAR, etc. We recommend that you take out, before embarking on your trip, health insurance include, in addition to the coverage of medical costs, including any return air health or transfer in any other country.


Semi-arid climate. The December-February period is characterized by the northeastern monsoons involving moderate temperatures in the North and hot in the South of the country. The period from May-October is characterized by South-Western monsoons that cause a torrid temperatures in the North and hot in the South of the country with irregular rainfall. The period between the monsoon is marked by a hot-humid climate.


Documents for vehicles imported temporarily It is necessary the Customs passage booklet; Links with Europe Transportation: transportation: land, transport is very limited and the lack of infrastructure, and the insecurity of paths when you must pass through several areas of the country that are controlled by tribal clan conflict with each other. Transport by air are insured by humanitarian flights such as ECHO, UNCAS (charges apply) and domestic commercial flights (not always recommended for the precariousness of the aircraft). A bi-weekly link between Addis Ababa and Hargheisa (Somaliland) is carried out by Ethiopian Airlines. In Europe there are no direct links. Possible connections via Djibouti, Dubai and Nairobi.

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Languages: English - Italiano

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