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is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. In English, the name Syria was formerly synonymous with the Levant, known in Arabic as Sham, while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the third millennium BC. In the Islamic era, its capital city, Damascus, the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate, and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. The population of Syria is 74% Sunni, 12% Alawi, 10% Christian, and 3% Druze. Combined, some 90% of the Syrian population is Muslim, while the other 10% is Christian, which includes mainly Arab Christians but also Assyrians and Armenians. Major ethnic minorities in Syria include Kurds (9%), Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens and Circassians. The majority of the population is Arab (90%). The modern Syrian state was established after the First World War as a French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–1971. Between 1958–1961, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt, which was terminated by a military coup in Syria. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963–2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic. Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1971. Since 2011, the Syrian government has faced massive protests as part of the Arab Spring, has been suspended from the Arab League and has faced widespread criticism for its crackdown on protestors. The Friends of Syria Group, a collection of Arab and Western governments opposed to the Assad government, recognized the Syrian National Council as "a legitimate representative" of Syrians protesting against the government.

Currency Lira siriana - SYP
Country code 00963
Spoken languages ​​ arabic

necessary, with a validity of at least 6 months remaining on arrival in the country. For any changes related to the survival of the Passport you should request to be informed beforehand at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent. It is recommended to countrymen to verify the integrity of the passport prior to departure in order to avoid that the Syrian authorities – suspecting tampering – they impede entry or exit from the country, and that, on the same, there are stamps of entry or exit, or Israel, or border area with Israel to Countries neighbouring to it: it would be immediately stopped or embark on the first flight for Italy. You could then run the risk of having to postpone the return expected.


Public health structures are lower than average level. Some private facilities, including an Italian hospital in Damascus (Jesr El Abyad-Taliani-Damascus-phone 3326030) offer better services, although under European standards. Endemic diseases in the country are: the Amoeba and intestinal parasites, hepatitis and typhoid (low risk). We recommend that you carry common medications and personal use as medicines to European production are difficult to find in the country. We recommend that you take out, before embarking on your trip, health insurance include, in addition to the coverage of medical costs, including any return air health or transfer in any other country. Warnings We recommend that you: • do not eat raw food, carefully wash fruits and vegetables; • drink only bottled water without adding ice in drinks and drink only pasteurized milk; • make, after consulting a doctor, vaccinations against hepatitis A and B and typhoid.


the mobile network is run by two operators (MTN and Syriatel) that have signed roaming agreements with Italian companies in the sector. As A consequence of the introduction of EU sanctions on Syriatel, roaming is no longer functioning in Europe, while the Italian mobile operation in Syria is no longer assured (in some areas is not optimal reception). Preferable for travelers to buy local card for telephone traffic. They also reported increasing difficulties over the past few months via the Internet link via sms, and mobile phones. In many areas of the country, especially those most affected by ongoing battles and operations, these communications are systematically blocked.


The climate is Mediterranean. In Damascus and internal cities from April to late October, the weather is hot/dry with temperatures ranging from 25 to over 40 degrees. In Lattakia and on the coast, the climate is more humid. In winter, from November to March, the climate is quite temperate. The coldest months are January and February with temperatures that can drop even around zero degrees; the snowfalls are possible. Rainfall is generally scarce.


Driving Licence: International (Geneva Convention 1949 model or Vienna 1968). Ordinary road network 64,697 Km, of which 9,058 paved. Rail network 2,460 km. Ports Latakia, Banias, Arwad, Tartous, Jableh. Airports Damascus, Aleppo, Latakia, Kamishli, Deir-ez-Zor. Several European airlines are decreasing, and the operation of flights a week to and from Damascus. These reductions continue to be in place in early 2012. Alitalia announced that its direct air connections with Syria are suspended since January 12, 2012 and that passengers heading to Damascus or from the Syrian capital will be hijacked to Beirut airport via a shuttle bus. Please note that from May 24, 2011 has been suspended direct connection Italy-Syria by sea from Venice to Tartous managed by compagnia italiana Visemar. Internal transport Urban transport with private minibuses. Taxis are, however, very numerous and quite cheap (a medium-length coast from 0.5 to 1 euro). Buses connect all cities of Syria. In the current situation, are frequent interruptions of inland transport services between the major cities of the country. Driving rules Syria Embassy press release (6/22/2000) Visitors wishing to travel to Syria by car must be the owner of the car and have the INTERNATIONAL CIRCULATION (obtainable at the provincial offices of the Motorization). All practices related to the car (insurance, taxes of entry and exit, leave, etc.) may be carried out in the border and pay in dollars. You can rent a car (with driver) in Syria or Italy. THE A.C. Syria advised to guard passage Carnet customs in order to speed up customs procedures for temporary importation of vehicles. Circulation Direction of travel Guide to the right, overtake on the left. Blood alcohol content Driving while intoxicated is strictly prohibited A blood test may be required as a result of an accident. The police is authorised to impose and collect fines on the spot in case of contravention of the rules of movement. The offender is released receipt for the amount of the fine. The amounts of the fines vary from a minimum of 50 SYP to a maximum of 5,000 SYP.

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