Sierra Leone

       
Freetown

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is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea to the north and east, Liberia to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and southwest. Sierra Leone covers a total area of 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi) and has an estimated population of 6.3 million. It was a colony under the auspices of the Sierra Leone Company from March 11, 1792 until it became a British colony in 1808. Sierra Leone has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests. Freetown is the capital, largest city as well as its economic, educational, cultural and financial center. The second largest city is Bo. Other major cities are Kenema, Makeni and Koidu Town. Sierra Leone is divided into four geographical regions: the Northern Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area; which are subdivided into fourteen districts. The districts have their own directly elected local government known as district council. The country's six municipalities of Freetown, Bo, Kenema, Makeni, Koidu Town and the coastal town of Bonthe have their own directly elected city councils headed by mayors. Sierra Leone is a constitutional representative democratic republic, whereby the President is both the head of state and the head of government. Legislative power is vested by the House of Parliament of Sierra Leone. The Judiciary of Sierra Leone is independent of the executive and the legislative and is headed by the Supreme Court. Since Independence in 1961 to present, Sierra Leone's politics have been dominated by two major political parties: the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) and the All People's Congress (APC). Other political parties have also existed throughout but with no significant supports. The country has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base. It is among the top diamond producing nations in the world, and mineral exports remain the main foreign currency earner. Sierra Leone is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, and a major producer of gold. The country has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile. Sierra Leone is also home to the third largest natural harbour in the world where shipping from all over the globe berth at Freetown's famous Queen Elizabeth II Quay. Despite this natural wealth, 70% of its people live in poverty. Sierra Leone is a predominantly Muslim country, though with an influential Christian minority. Sierra Leone is ranked as one of the most religiously tolerant nations in the world. People are often married across ethnic and religious boundaries. Muslims and Christians collaborate and interact with each other peacefully. Religious violence is very rare in the country. The population of Sierra Leone comprises of sixteen ethnic groups, each with its own language and custom. The two largest and most influential are the Mende and Temne. The two are about equal in numbers and each comprises just over 30% of the population . The Mende are predominantly found in theSouth-Eastern Sierra Leone; the Temne likewise predominate in Northern Sierra Leone. Although English is the language of instruction in schools and the official language in government administration, the Krio language (derived from English and several indigenous African languages) is the primary language of communication among the country's different ethnic groups, and is spoken as a first language by about 10%, but understood by 95%. of the people. The Krio Language unites all the different ethnic groups, especially in their trade and interaction with each other. Between 1991 and 2002 the Sierra Leone Civil War devastated the country leaving more than 50,000 people dead, much of the country's infrastructure destroyed, and over two million people displaced in neighbouring countries; mainly to Guinea, which was home to around one million Sierra Leonean refugees. The war was resolved in 2002 after the Nigerian-led ECOMOG troops were heavily reinforced by a British force spearheaded by 1st Bn The Parachute Regiment, supported by the British Royal Navy The arrival of this force resulted in the defeat of rebel forces and restored the civilian government elected in 1996. On January 18, 2002 President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah declared the civil war officially over. Since then the country has re-established a functioning democracy. Early inhabitants of Sierra Leone included the Sherbro, Temne and Limba peoples, and later the Mende, who knew the country as Romarong, and the Kono who settled in the east of the country. In 1462, it was visited by the Portuguese explorer Pedro da Cintra, who dubbed it Serra de Leão, meaning "Lion Mountains". Sierra Leone later became an important centre of the transatlantic trade in slaves until March 11, 1792 when Freetown was founded by the Sierra Leone Company as a home for former enslaved from (or freed by) the British Empire. In 1808, Freetown became a British Crown Colony, and in 1896, the interior of the country became a British Protectorate; in 1961, the two regions combined and gained independence.

Capital FREETOWN
Currency Leone (SLL)
Country code 00232
Spoken languages ​​ english
Passport

necessary, with residual validity of at least one year months since entering the country. For any changes to this rule you should inquire in advance at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent.

Health

Healthcare facilities in General and those of emergency are deficient and unreliable. There are few pharmacies, however lacking in kind of medicines. We recommend that you carry a stock of medicines for emergencies and for specific pathologies which are both suffering. Present in the country are, however, some hospitals run by NGOs and by Italian clerics, who boast a good level compared to the local standards. In particular, of the following structures: -Surgical and Medical Centre (operational since November 2001) managed by Emergency to Goderich (10 miles from Freetown) and specialized in emergency surgery; -Hospital "Holy Spirit" of Makeni opened in 2007 thanks to the fundraiser promoted by Caritas and where they are active volunteers of the Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi; -Hospital in Lunsar, run by Italian clerics and dependent on the Diocese of Makeni. In case of necessity is also a private hospital, the Choitram Hospital indiana in Freetown, which offers satisfactory patient services and hospital stays. It is absolutely necessary to conclude, before embarking on your trip, health insurance, as well as providing coverage of medical expenses, even if air emergency medical repatriation or transfer in any other country. Endemic diseases are numerous, though shortly urban spread. Are very high risks of contracting yellow fever, tetanus, tuberculosis, typhoid, hepatitis and meningitis. Malaria is spread over the entire territory and in some cases is particularly severe and resistant to chlorine quinine. You should, after consulting a doctor, an anti-malarial even if not efficient in all cases and to take all necessary precautionary measures. We also recommend that, before you travel, consult a medical expert in tropical medicine and take medicines to combat malaria effectively in case of infections. Widespread HIV/AIDS, especially among the young population and urban environments. In the case of injuries or abrasions are recommended to thoroughly disinfect with mercury chrome or another disinfectant. It is recommended to perform, after consulting a doctor, vaccinations against meningitis, cholera, typhoid, tetanus, tuberculosis, hepatitis A and b. Due to the presence of avian influenza are advised to avoid contact with poultry and not go into their markets and farms. WARNINGS We recommend that you: -avoid eating raw foods; -wash and disinfect thoroughly fruits and vegetables; -drinking water and bottled drinks, without adding ice.

Telephony

the cellular network is active in major cities. The fixed network is little diffused and in a bad state: the links are subject to frequent interruptions

Climate

Climate is typically tropical, with high percentage of moisture (90-95%) during the rainy season (May to October). The average yearly temperature is 27° with minimal tips in the months of December and January. Due to the tropical climate, we recommend light clothing in natural fabrics (linen, cotton). During the rainy season, from June to October, you should also carry clothing (shoes and jacket) waterproof.

Viability

Driving Licence: Italiana

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Languages: English - Italiano

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