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is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the US state of Alaska by the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the eighth most populous nation with 143 million people. It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning nine time zones and incorporating a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources and is the second largest oil producer and second largest natural gas producer globally. Russia has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's fresh water. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America. Following the Russian Revolution, Russia became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, which played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human spaceflight. The Russian Federation was founded following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Soviet state. Russia has the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP or the 6th largest by purchasing power parity, with the 5th largest nominal military budget. It is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G8, G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the World Trade Organisation (WTO), and is the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Capital MOSCOW
Currency Rublo - RUB
Country code 007
Spoken languages ​​ Russian
Passport

necessary, with residual validity of at least 6 months upon arrival in the country. For any changes related to the survival of the Passport you should request to be informed beforehand at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent. It is good to draw attention to the fact that passports must always be kept in excellent conditions in order not to risk the possibility that the Russian authorities are reliefs which could result in the refusal of entry into the country.

Health

We recommend that you take out before embarking on the trip, an adequate health insurance to include, in addition to the coverage of medical costs, including any return air health or transfer in any other country. The level of health facilities and hospitals, especially outside major urban centres, is lower than the Western one, not so much because of the lack of professionalism of medical staff, as well as equipment and medicines. Medical assistance is paid. Occasionally, there are cases of diphtheria, hepatitis, cholera, tuberculosis etc. We recommend, after consulting a doctor, antidifterica and vaccinations against hepatitis A and b. Statistics from the Ministry of health, shows a very high percentage of cases of AIDS and venereal diseases. It should be noted also that in May 2010 – were reported numerous cases of measles in Amur Oblast, Amurskaya province. It is inadvisable to drink tap water, drinking, although officially by the high presence of minerals (the purification system and control, inter alia, in some areas does not work optimally).

Telephony

The country is on the cellular network – you can receive and also call with a card. INTERNET: in the best hotels and in some locations of major cities there is wi-fi coverage in some cases free of charge. Wi-fi coverage outdoors is paid and erratic. In the areas of cellular network coverage you can use USB modem for GSM standard (where active) or higher.

Climate

The climate varies from one (at the extreme northwestern Russia 's) to the rugged continental (in Siberia) and the monsoon (in East Asia). Average January temperatures are between 0 and 50 C, those of July between +1 and +25 C, rainfall varies from 150 to 2000 mm per year.

Viability

Licence The Italian driver's license must be accompanied by an official translation into Russian or international driving licence. Are recognized both models of driving licences valid international (Geneva, 1949 and 1968 Vienna). Car insurance 1/1/2009 from Russia is part of the circuit of the green card. Are only valid green cards in which "Russia" is mentioned in the list of countries. Otherwise visitors must sign a short-term policy at the Russian insurance COMPANY INGOSSTRAKH are ALSO NECESSARY. This policy is available in frontier or at any other company Ingosstrakh are also necessary Office details to the page www.ingos.ru Documents for vehicles imported temporarily Private vehicles can be imported without customs document temporarily for the duration of the visa holder's entry. A special permit is issued at the border. The entry into the country, the motorist must sign a document with which undertakes to re-export the vehicle at the end of your stay in Russia; on leaving he shall submit the copy of this document. Remember those driving abroad, a car that is not advisable to have a delegation to conduct of the owner, with signature notarized by the notary public. Driving rules Helmets for motorcyclists: required. Seat belt and child seat: required wear your seatbelt for the driver and all passengers occupying a seat is fitted. Forbidden to sit a child less than 12 years on a front seat which is not equipped with restraint system appropriate to its size. Forbidden to carry a motorcycle a child less than 12 years. Fire extinguisher: required. Briefcase: compulsory first aid. Lighthouses: motorcycles are required the headlights both day and night; for vehicles with 4 wheels is required the use of headlamps during the day, also outside the agglomerations. The cars must have a spare bulb kit. Legal BAC = 0.03% Driving while intoxicated or under the influence of narcotics is prohibited. Air connections With Italy there are direct links and newspapers through the companies Alitalia and Aereoflot. In summer are also frequent charter flights to and from the main Italian cities.

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