Norway

       
Norway

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is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island.[note 1] Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres (148,747 sq mi) and a population of about 4.99 million. It is the second least densely populated country in Europe. The majority of the country shares a border to the east with Sweden; its northernmost region is bordered by Finland to the south and Russia to the east; in its south Norway borders the Skagerrak Strait across from Denmark. The capital city of Norway is Oslo. Norway's extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, is home to its famous fjords. Two centuries of Viking raids tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav Tryggvason in 994. A period of civil war ended in the 13th century when Norway expanded its control overseas to parts of the British Isles, Iceland, and Greenland. Norwegian territorial power peaked in 1265, but competition from the Hanseatic League and the spread of the Black Death weakened the country. In 1380, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by the Third Reich. In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a founding member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness. Norway is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, with King Harald V as its head of state and Jens Stoltenberg as its prime minister. It is a unitary state with administrative subdivisions on two levels known as counties (fylke) and municipalities (kommuner). The Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Although having rejected European Union membership in two referenda, Norway maintains close ties with the union and its member countries, as well as with the United States. Norway remains one of the biggest financial contributors to the United Nations, and participates with UN forces in international missions, notably in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Sudan and Libya. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the Council of Europe, and the Nordic Council; a member of the European Economic Area, the WTO, and the OECD; and is also a part of Schengen Area. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, fresh water, and hydropower. The country has the fourth-highest GDP per capita in the world. On a per-capita basis, it is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside the Middle East, and the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. The country maintains a Nordic welfare model with universal health care, subsidized higher education, and a comprehensive social security system. From 2001 to 2006, and then again from 2009 through 2011, Norway has had the highest human development index ranking in the world.

Capital Oslo
Currency Corona norvegese (NOK)
Country code 0047
Spoken languages ​​ Norwegian, English
Passport

While not adhering to the EU, since 2001 the Norway is one of the countries of the Schengen area. Travel documents and accepted recognition are your passport or identity card valid for foreign travel, which must be valid for the entire period of stay in the country. In some cases (bank transactions, transfers, etc.) is required to show your Passport. For any changes related to the survival of the Passport request, you may want to inquire in advance at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent.

Health

The level of local health structures is generally very good. Strict is the scheme for the sale of medicines. Readily available regular sanitary products. Lists of medicinal products subject to medical prescription may differ from those of Italy. As regards the introduction of drugs for personal use, apply in Norway the same rules for the European Union. Italian citizens who travel temporarily (for tourism, business, study or work) in Norway may receive assistance from the local health system if they have the European health insurance card (TEAM) that health card. The TEAM replaces the previous models E110, E111, E128 and E119 and is distributed by the Ministry of economy and finance.

Telephony

for the cellular network are GSM and NMT systems covering almost the entire national territory.

Climate

Cold. The climate is milder along the coast and to the South of the country thanks to the influence of the Gulf stream but highly variable and with frequent precipitation in western coastal regions. It is recommended to equip themselves for every type of climate. Average temperatures in winter: Oslo, -3/ -4, +18/summer: +19°.

Viability

Licence Italiana. Car insurance The liability insurance is mandatory for the circulation of any motor vehicle, including mopeds. A motorist Italian doesn't need any supplementary insurance document to his national policy. Please note that the civil liability insurance only covers damage caused to third parties and not those inflicted by their cars. Evaluate the opportunity to conclude, for all vehicles, including camper and caravan, optional additional insurance (Kasko type), for unprovoked by other accidents, thefts, vandalism, etc. Delegation to conduct: Remember those driving abroad, a car that is not advisable to have a delegation to conduct of the owner with a notary certified signature at. Driving rules -BAC scrupulously the guidance. The allowable rate is 0.2 per thousand and not allow the intake of alcoholic beverages. The sanctions include the stopping, the withdrawal penalty with heavy fines and conciliation is not immediate, it is likely the seizure of the car; -scrupulously the rules of the highway code and in particular those on speed limits (usually 50 Km/h in towns, 30 Km/h in residential zones, between 60 and 80 km/h outside towns 80/90/100 km/h and on some sections of motorway). Frequent are police controls. You risk heavy fines. In the case of conciliation not, you risk immediate arrest, seizure of the car or the withdrawal of the licence; -mandatory travel with the lights low beam, even during the daylight hours; -required to fasten seat belts on the front seats and, if installed, even on the rear ones; -mandatory helmets for motorcycles; -observe strictly the use of approved child seats for children; -insurance for theft, liability and also for camper and travel trailer; -be careful when doing full of diesel, do not use the pumps for agricultural vehicles. They are often made of checks and the fines are high. It is forbidden the use of manual mobile phone while driving. Winter equipment From 15 October (in the North), 1 November (in the South) until the first Sunday after Easter is allowed the use of snow chains or studded tires. Alternatively have compulsory snow tires mounted on all wheels with a minimum thickness of 3 mm of tread. For information on roads and traffic can be found on the website of the Norwegian Road Authority (also in English) www.vegvesen.no/Hovedside. Highways The autostrale network in Norway is undeveloped and concentrated in the South of the country, especially near the capital. The longest stretch (about 100 km) connects Oslo with the border with Sweden. The payment of the toll can be made in cash or by the electronic system "autopass". NB: the only road to Oslo the system is fully automated, (license plate numbers of vehicles are photographed) and you can then pay cash, if not to the Esso petrol station in Oslo and Akershus within 3 days following transit. Transport in General: public transport (train, tram, bus, taxi) are modern and efficient but costly. The most-used means of transport for the aircraft interior (46 airports) and for smaller distances, train and bus. The rail network does not reach the northernmost regions of the country. Limiting motor traffic centers of major cities (Oslo, Trondheim, Bergen) is in effect a toll system required for entry into the Centre. Every single passage costs about NOK 15 -40 (about 2-5 euros).

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