Mongolia

       
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is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only 38 kilometres (24 mi) from Kazakhstan's eastern tip. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic. The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Gökturks and others. The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. After the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols returned to their earlier pattern of constant internal conflict and occasional raids on the Chinese borderlands. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Mongolia came under the influence of Tibetan Buddhism. At the end of the 17th century, all of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Qing Dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, but had to struggle until 1921 to firmly establish de facto independence from the Republic of China, and until 1945 to gain international recognition. As a consequence, it came under strong Russian and Soviet influence; in 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was declared, and Mongolian politics began to follow the same patterns as the Soviet politics of the time. After the breakdown of communist regimes in Eastern Europe in late 1989, Mongolia saw its own Democratic Revolution in early 1990, which led to a multi-party system, a new constitution in 1992, and transition to a market economy. At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 19th largest and the most sparsely populated independent country in the world, with a population of around 2.75 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by steppes, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Approximately 30% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism, and the majority of the state's citizens are of the Mongol ethnicity, though Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. About 20% of the population live on less than US$1.25 per day. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.

Capital ULAAN BAATAR
Currency Tughrik o Tigrik ( MNT)
Country code 00976
Spoken languages ​​ Mongolian, Russian
Passport

necessary, with residual validity of at least six months.

Health

The quality of the health service in Mongolia is low, especially outside of Ulaan Baatar, and is rare to find, outside of a few hospitals of the capital (Russian Polyclinic Hospital-Hospital Number 2 and Yonsei Friendship Hospital) health personnel professionally prepared European levels and able to communicate in a Western language (most doctors have training in Russian). Yonsei University Hospital is the only when speaking English. Hospitals in the capital almost always require the immediate payment of your services. The level of health is very precarious in the province. Comprehensive health insurance, which covers the cost of treatment, hospitalisation and repatriation or transfer in any other country, is strongly recommended. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and AIDS) are growing; have also been reported cases of rabies and plague. There are infectious diseases such as the plague, meningitis, tuberculosis, hepatitis B. Please note that, especially during the summer months, there are cases of cholera and typhoid. In the past there have been cases of plague. Are strongly recommended, after consulting a doctor, vaccinations against hepatitis A and B (very widespread in the country) and vaccinations, tetanus and polio antidifterica against cholera and the plague. Avoid absolutely the consumption of foods raw or undercooked poultry and eggs, especially. Wash hands frequently with SOAP disinfectant in particular if you are in contact with animals. Warnings We strongly recommend travel insurance coverage with providing international-in case of emergency – even the repatriation or evacuation of the sick to other countries in the region, the best equipped from the health point of view. Given the difficulty of finding Western manufacturing medicines, we suggest you start with a stock of medicines adapted to their needs.

Telephony

Italian managers have "roaming" agreements with Mobicom. You can buy a card: there are outlets at the airport and Ulaan Baatar. Coverage is limited to a few urban centres. The Internet café are very popular. It is recommended that you carry a GPS device or a satellite phone if you travel in the Interior of the country

Climate

Cold continental. Winters lasting from October to March are a tough schedule (on average – 20/25 degrees, with peaks of 40/45 –). If not for the statutory reasons, you may want to avoid staying in the months of December and January. From June to August is the hottest period, with temperatures that can reach up to +35 degrees.

Viability

Licence International driving licence (conforming to model Vienna 1968) Transport: the road network within the Country is not very developed. The Mongolia has about 1,800 Km of railways and less than 2000 Miles of paved roads. On the road – especially outside the capital – are very frequent accidents, often fatal. The railway network is essentially limited to a North-South line that connects Russia to China and is not very secure. The problems of obsolescence of equipment now seem outdated aircraft. Bad weather can delay many domestic and international flights. Links with Europe: the capital is accessible via Moscow with the Russian airline Aeroflot. -via Berlin-with the Mongolian national airline MIAT-e-via Beijing (where trasitano all major companies) with the Air China or MIAT, via Seoul with Air Korea.

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