Madagascar

       
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is an island country located in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar (the fourth-largest island in the world), as well as numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from India around 88 million years ago, allowing plants and animals on the island to evolve in complete isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot in which over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by human settlement. Initial human settlement of Madagascar occurred from 350 BCE and 550 CE by Austronesian peoples arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo who were later joined around 1000 CE by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life. The Malagasy ethnic group is often divided into eighteen or more sub-groups of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands. Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting socio-political alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, the majority of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles. The monarchy collapsed when the island was conquered and absorbed into the French colonial empire in 1896, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed Republics. Since 1992 the nation has officially been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009 the last elected president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina in a move widely viewed by the international community as a coup d'état. In 2011, the population of Madagascar was estimated at around 21.9 million, 90% of whom live on less than two dollars per day. Malagasy and French are both official languages of the state. The majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs or Christianity. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education, health and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana these investments produced substantial economic growth but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class. Current and future generations in Madagascar are faced with the challenge of striking a balance between economic growth, equitable development and natural conservation.

Capital ANTANANARIVO
Currency Ariary
Country code 00261 20
Spoken languages ​​ French and Malagasy
Passport

Passport: needed, with survival of at least 6 months at the time of entry into the country. For any changes to this rule you should inquire in advance at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent. Please note that in case of theft or loss of your passport should contact the compatriots Consular Correspondent of Antananarivo, who leads them to the Embassy of France to issue a travel document valid for the return to Italy.

Health

Despite the presence of several health facilities, the health care system is generally not capable of supporting emergency cases that involve delicate and complex interventions. In such cases it is necessary to transport a properly equipped health into areas such as South Africa or La Réunion. You should then, before you leave, health insurance in addition to providing medical expenses also cover a possible transfer of the patient to another place or repatriation medical aircraft. It is also preferable that health insurance guarantees the opportunity to obtain advances of money in case of hospital admissions. Often, in fact, no health benefit is provided by private clinics without the payment of a deposit (which can sometimes be very high). Can there be between the healthcare facility and the insurance company, a Convention that makes it possible to avoid it. The supply of medicines is not usually particular problems in Antananarivo, while it may be difficult in the rest of the country. Warnings: We recommend that you: • to maintain a high level of personal hygiene and to adopt special preventive measures; • to avoid eating raw food, • drinking water and bottled beverages without adding ice; • prior medical opinion, vaccination against hepatitis A and B and yellow fever; • prior medical opinion, prophylaxis (malaria is prevalent especially in coastal areas); • not to bathe in rivers and freshwater lakes due to the biliarziosi; Were recorded in sporadic cases of cholera and rabies transmitted by stray dogs. In addition, in Alaotra Mangoro, Analamanga, Itasy, Vakinankaratra and Anosv, were recorded in the past, cases of Rift Valley fever. We recommend incidentals to take preventive measures against mosquito bites that cause infection, listed under the heading "Focus" on the home page of the site. Finally, it should be kept in mind that the HIV virus (AIDS) is widespread.

Telephony

The GSM 900 system is used in the Country but the areas covered by Madacon and Orange are very limited.

Climate

In the village there are two seasons, a dry from May to September and a rainy and warm that goes from October to April. In the months from January to April, the country may be subject to tropical storms. The climate of the capital, Antananarivo, is generally dry and healthy.

Viability

Licence Italiana. Car insurance No foreign insurance is accepted. On entry into the country must be concluded for the duration of your stay, temporary insurance with a local company. Driving rules The driver and the front seat passenger have the obligation to fasten your seatbelt. A rider must wear a helmet. Alcohol: rate limit of 0.08%. Transport: The road network is in very precarious conditions. There are internal air routes between the capital and the major towns of the island. Links with Europe: via Mauritius and La Réunion with Paris. The South African airline South African Airways "fly to Antananarivo from Milan Malpensa, via Johannesburg.

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