Kazakhstan

       
Annunciation Cathedral of Ryssian orthodox church in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan

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officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Europe. The ninth largest country in the world by land area, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of 2,727,300 square kilometres (1,053,000 sq mi) is larger than Western Europe. It is neighbored clockwise from the north by Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and also borders on a significant part of the Caspian Sea. Although Kazakhstan does not share a border with Mongolia, its most easterly point is only 38 kilometres (24 mi) from Mongolia's western tip. The terrain of Kazakhstan ranges from flatlands, steppes, taigas, rock-canyons, hills, deltas, and snow-capped mountains to deserts. With 16.6 million people (2011 estimate) Kazakhstan has the 62nd largest population in the world, though its population density is less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 per sq. mi.). The capital was moved in 1998 from Almaty, Kazakhstan's largest city, to Astana. For most of its history, the territory of modern-day Kazakhstan has been inhabited by nomadic tribes. By the 16th century, the Kazakhs emerged as a distinct group, divided into three Jüz. The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century all of Kazakhstan was part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganized several times before becoming the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936, a part of the USSR. Kazakhstan declared itself an independent country on December 16, 1991, the last Soviet republic to do so. Its communist-era leader, Nursultan Nazarbayev, became the country's first president, a position he retains today. President Nazarbayev maintains strict control over the country's politics. Since independence, Kazakhstan has pursued a balanced foreign policy and worked to develop its economy, especially its hydrocarbon industry. The post-Soviet era has also been characterized by increased involvement with many international organizations, including the United Nations, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Kazakhstan is also one of six post-Soviet states who have implemented an Individual Partnership Action Plan with NATO. Kazakhstan is ethnically and culturally diverse, in part due to mass deportations of many ethnic groups to the country during Stalin's rule. Kazakhstan has a population of 16.6 million, with 131 ethnicities, including Kazakh, Russian, Uyghur, Ukrainian, Uzbek, Tatar, and German. Around 63% percent of the population are Kazakhs. Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion, and many different beliefs are represented in the country. Islam is the religion of more than 70% of the population, with Christianity practiced by most of the remainder. The Kazakh language is the state language, while Russian is also officially used as an equal language to Kazakh in Kazakhstan's public institutions.

Capital ASTANA
Currency Tenge kazako
Country code 007
Spoken languages ​​ Kazakh and Russian
Passport

Passport/valid identity card needed for border crossing: you need the passport with validity of at least three months after the expiry date of the visa. For any changes related to the survival of the Passport you should request to be informed beforehand at the Embassy or Consulate of the country present in Italy or at your travel agent.

Health

Standards of public health facilities and preparation of hospital staff, while improving, are still not quite satisfactory, while private clinics in major cities, often offer only basic services. For diagnoses, and more serious cases, therefore, we recommend that you return in Italy, which can also be complex, especially if you are in more remote areas of the country. As for the endemic diseases include tuberculosis, and, in the regions of Eastern Kazakhstan and Almaty, tick encephalitis (mainly between spring and summer); There are even outbreaks of meningitis and a significant number of cases of AIDS. It is also known that-southern region of Kazakhstan, not far from the city of Shymkent – were recorded cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever ", as a result of tick bites. According to the Kazakh authorities, the most vulnerable are children, while districts at greater risk would be those of Syzanskyj, Otyrarskyj and Shardarinskij. In the main cities of the availability of medicinal products is facilitated by the presence of numerous pharmacies. However, we recommend that you take out insurance cover to respond to any medical expenses and repatriation or air transfer in Italy or any other country. -Warnings: As regards vaccinations are suggested, after consulting a doctor, proceeding to those against hepatitis A and typhoid and recalls against hepatitis B, diphtheria and tetanus, as well as to verify the continued efficacy of vaccinations which are made obligatory and recommended in childhood by the Ministry of health. Always subject to medical advice, counseling, in addition, vaccinations against tick encephalitis (and, more generally, adequate protections against insects, such as roofing, dresses well and mosquito repellents) for those who plan to go "green" tourism and mountain (prophylaxis requires a few months and in Italy the vaccine may be difficult to find), and rabies for those wishing to travel in rural areas and/or are in contact with animals. It should be noted that in the Central Asian region, which Kazakhstan part – were also detected several cases of infectious diseases and is absolutely should also pay attention to food infections. You must then refrain from food infections, including, in addition to those mentioned above: cholera, salmonella and e.coli, toxoplasmosis. Outbreaks of bird flu (but no human cases of the disease) have been recorded in the summer of 2005 in the northeastern regions and in early 2006 on the shores of the Caspian Sea. You are registered in Kazakhstan also cases of influenza A/H1N1, although on a lesser scale than has taken place in Europe and in the United States. For information and updates on the so-called "swine" flu (H1N1 virus) and tips for travelers consult the "Focus" on the homepage of this site. It is advisable to avoid raw foods (with the exception of fruit washed and peeled provided) and consume only cooked foods served still hot. Unpasteurized milk should always be boiled, while ice can represent a risk. It is important to use only mineral water and food purposes both for oral hygiene. It is recommended that you do not add ice in drinks and do not buy food or drinks from street vendors. In any case, before the trip, we suggest you contact your doctor or the competent healthcare for more tips.

Telephony

The cellular network is active in Kazakhstan, although it is not able to cover the entire territory of the country, especially outside the major cities.

Climate

The climate is continental tightly (very cold winters and very hot summers).

Viability

Licence Italiana. Car insurance Insurance company Ingosstrakh are also necessary (insurance of short-term border) There are no direct connections with Italy. Air connections From Astana: Astana is linked to Europe by the following companies: Lufthansa (Via Frankfurt) Austrian Airlines (via Vienna); Air Astana (flights to Frankfurt, Moscow and Istanbul); Turkish Airline (via Istanbul);Ukrainian Airlines (Kiev) has daily flights to Transaero Moscow there are regional links with Air Astana (to Urumqi and Novosibibirsk) and Dubai and Abu Dabhi From Almaty: Almaty, it is possible to reach Europe with Lufthansa; Air Astana (Frankfurt, London, Amsterdam, Istanbul, Moscow, KLM (via Amsterdam) Turkish Airline Air astana and other companies have numerous connections to other destinations in Central Asia and the far East. From Atyrau: Air Astana has connections with Amsterdam and Istanbul. From Aksai Chin: (the airport that maintains connections to Uralsk, which is about 160 km from Aksai Chin) The charter company Astraeus Airlines has 1 flight weekly with London; Transaero has 2 weekly flights to Moscow.

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