Salzburg

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Salzburg is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital city of the federal state of Salzburg.

Salzburg's "Old Town" (Altstadt) has internationally renowned baroque architecture and one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. The city is noted for its Alpine setting.

Salzburg was the birthplace of 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. His mother was born at at St Gilgen on the Wolfgangsee and his father in Augsburg. In the mid-20th century, the city was the setting for parts of the American musical and film The Sound of Music.

The capital city of the State of Salzburg (Land Salzburg), the city has three universities and a large population of students.

The architecture of Salzburg:

Romanesque and Gothic

The Romanesque and Gothic churches, the monasteries and the early carcass houses dominated the medieval city for a long time. The Cathedral of Archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach was the largest basilica in the north of the Alps. The choir of the Franciscan Church Hall, construction began by Hans von Burghausen and completed by Stephan Krumenauer, is one of the most prestigious gothic constructions south of the German-speaking countries. At the end of the Gothic era the collegiate church “Nonnberg”, Margaret Chapel in St. Peter's Cemetery, the St. George's Chapel and the stately halls of the “Hoher Stock” in the Hohensalzburg Castle were constructed.

Renaissance and Baroque

Archbishop Wolf Dietrich Raitenau began, inspired by Vincenzo Scamozzi, with the architectural change from an medieval town to the architectural ideals of the late Renaissance. The planned massive cathedral by Vincenzo Scamozzi was canceled because of the fall of the Archbishop. The following cathedral planned by Santino Solari was the first early Baroque church in Salzburg. He was an example for many other churches in Southern Germany and Austria. Markus Sittikus and Paris von Lodron continued the rebuilding of the city with major projects such as the Hellbrunn Palace, the prince's residence, the university buildings, fortifications, and many other buildings. Giovanni Antonio Daria managed in order of Guido von Thun the construction of the residential well. Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli created in order of the same archbishop the Erhard and the Kajetaner church in the south of the town. The redesign of the city was completed with buildings designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, donated by Prince Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun. After the era of Ernst Thun the expansion of the city stopped. That's the reason why there are no churches built in the rococo style. Sigismund von Schrattenbach continued with the construction of “Sigmundstor” and the statue of holy Maria on the cathedral square. With the fall and division of the former Archbishop ruled “Fürsterzbistums Salzburg” to Upper Austria, Bavaria (Rupertigau) and Tyrol (Zillertal Matrei) began a long period of urban stagnancy. This era didn't end before the period of promoterism brought new live into the urban development. The builder dynasty Jakob Ceconi and Carl Freiherr von Schwarz filled major positions in shaping the city in this era.

Classical modernism and post-war modernism

Buildings of classical modernism and in particular the post-war modernism are frequently encountered in Salzburg. Examples are the Zahnwurzen house (a house in the Linzergasse 22 in the right center of the old town), the “Lepi” (a public baths in Leopoldskron) (built 1964) and the original 1957 constructed congress center of Salzburg, which got replaced by a new building in 2001. An important and famous example of architecture of this era is the 1960 opened Großes Festspielhaus by Clemens Holzmeister.

Contemporary Architecture

Adding contemporary architecture to Salzburg's old town without risking its UNESCO World Heritage status is problematic. Yet some new structures have been added: the Mozarteum at the baroque Mirabell garden (Architecture Robert Rechenauer), the 2001 Congress house (Architecture: Freemasons), the 2011 Unipark Nonntal (Architecture: Storch Ehlers partners), the 2001 “Makartsteg” bridge (Architecture: HALLE1), and the “Residential and studio house” of the architects Christine & Horst Lechner in the middle of Salzburg's old town (winner of the architecture award of Salzburg 2010). Other examples of contemporary architecture also exist outside the old town: the Faculty of Science building (Universität Salzburg – Architecture Willhelm Holzbauer) built on the edge of free green space, the blob architecture of Red Bull Hangar-7 (Architecture: Volkmar Burgstaller) at Salzburg Airport, home to Dietrich Mateschitz's Flying Bulls and the Europark shopping mall. (Architecture: Massimiliano Fuksas)
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